Glossary of Terms: Ta (2023)

Tao (a.k.a. Dao)

One of the key categories in classical Chinese philosophy, first defined in the book Tao Te Ching in around 500 B.C.E.: "The Tao that can be talked about is not the true Tao."; "it is nothing, and yet in everything" – what is it? "Thirty spokes on a cart wheel / Go towards the hub that is the center / – but look, there is nothing at the center / and that is precisely how it works!". Tao, explained Lao Tzu, is no more elusive than the basic processes that can be witnessed in nature: that opposite and contradictory aspects (yin/yang) are present in all things.

Tao is explained as being within all things. Translated literally Tao means "movement above"; when put into the context of the Tao Te Ching where everything is explained as being full of contradiction – for life there is death, for happiness there is sorrow; when one exists its opposite also exists – the Tao encompasses the contradictions and at the same time supersedes them. In this way Tao can be interpreted as an ancient formulation of the dialectical synthesis. Since its widespread introduction into Chinese culture, Tao took on the meaning of "the way" and also as the "path" of nature. In relation to the Daoist, the action of being both encompassing of the contradictions and yet superseding them is called wu-wei (actionless-action), the way of water.

Taoism (a.k.a. Daoism)

The practice of Tao, the way of nature, originated in China in around 500 B.C.E. Introduced by the materialist philosopher Lao Tzu ("ancient child"), he practiced life in accordance to nature, explaining the laws of nature are guided by necessity (further elaborated by Yang Chu). Hence, in part, the expression "wu-wei" (actionless-action) – a central component of taoist understanding – accepting and not interfering with the movement of nature, while at the same time using the movement of nature towards action. The dialectic is the underlining philosophical tool of Taoism; that opposite and contradictory aspects are present in all things (yin-yang), and that the motion of nature is the movement of something towards its opposite.

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Taoism has three founders: Lao Tzu, Chuang Tzu and Lieh Tzu. Lao Tzu wrote the first explanation of Taoism, the Tao Te Ching, in around 500 B.C.E.; in it he explained the material existence of Tao and the practice of Te in accordance to that material base. The book of Chuang Tzu, written about 100 years after the Tao Te Ching, is a humorous work that attacks rationalistic forms of logic (namely that of Confucius), and explains that politics, government, and social issues are based within people themselves, not laws, codes of conduct, nor moral virtues. The Lieh Tzu, written during the warring states period in China (around 300 B.C.E.), deals primarily with Te and the materialist basis of the sufferings of humanity.

Several elaborations of Taoism emerged in ancient China after the passing of Lao Tzu. Yang Chu, who severely criticized religion and belief in immortality, explained that by observing the natural laws of life (tao) humans would "preserve their nature intact", while Yin Wen believed that adherence to Tao would yield every human wisdom and knowledge of the truth. Yin Wen explained that the human soul consists of delicate material particles, which come and go depending on the "purity" or "pollution" of the mind (hsin). Chuang Tzu saw the object of cognition in the dialectic of the single and the plural, the absolute and the relative, the constant and the changing. Chuang Tzu is sometimes criticized, however, for separating tao from things, and thus making absolute the single in the plural. Some argue that this served as the ideological basis for the taoist religion.

Starting in around 300 B.C.E., the practice of Taoist alchemy began with Tsou Yen. Taoist experiments initiated Chinese chemistry, mineralogy, and pharmaceuticals, and resulted in the production of various dies, alloys, and porcelain. The greatest achivements of Taoist alchemy were the world's first compass and the creation of gunpowder, a millenum before any other society would repeat such advances. Taoist alchemists, however, did not have a need to objectify their methods and observations, and thus alchemy never transformed into modern science.

By around 250 B.C.E., while materialist Taoists were following their way, a movement of Neo Taoism took root, which can roughly be generalized in two new directions: revisionist and hedonistic. The revisionists (led by Wang Pi and Kuo Hsiang) moved heavily towards Confucianism, explaining it as the fulfillment of Taoism in practical world affairs. While the most well-known hedonists (also called the lyrical or romantic Taoists) were the Seven Sages of the Bamboo Grove (led by Chi K'ang), who swung in the opposite direction – evading every duty, neglecting every convention, and indulging in every whim. The revisionists gradually gave way to the seeds of a Taoist religion (soon to be dominated by the hereditary theocrats Chang), while the hedonists ended up in a nearby tavern, drinking themselves into a state of "spiritual communion" with the Tao.

Modern Taoism can generally be divided into two categories: the materialist philosophy of its three founders, and its later conversion into a religion (Tao-chiao).

Relation to Confucism and Buddhism: Confucius was often the butt of Taoist jokes, being so tied up in vast and complicated systems of ideology and laws – all swirling around Confucius in a confusing frenzy – both for himself and those around him!

(Video) Definition of the word "Ta"

Taoist folklore also tells of a humorist historical connection to Buddhism: when Lao Tzu left his village to head west (a symbolism of death), he traveled as far as India, where he found Prince Siddhartha, confused about the workings of the world. On meeting Lao Tzu, Siddhartha tried to understand his philosophy, but as the story goes, he could not get it quite right! Hence, the emergence of Buddhism. The two have a little similarity – Taoism explains that desire is an ideal which can distract from an acceptance of the material world, while Buddhism agrees, but places complete emphasis on getting rid of desire and even a strict system of moral guidelines on how to do it. Even further apart with Mahayana, Zen and Tibetan Buddhism, where the individual ego is considered to be non-existent, and the physical world an illusion. Both of these aspects are diametrically opposed to Taoism, which considers the individual ego a material part of the whole (tao), and the physical world as the basis of all practice.

Taxation

Taxation is the portion of the social surplus accruing to the government.

Taxes are collected by any number of methods, which differ in their effectiveness in preventing tax avoidance, their ease of collection, and in how they manipulate the prices of various categories of commodity; but in essence all are the same. Although taxation can have an impact on supply and demand and thereby affect prices, in general, taxes form a part of surplus-value, alongside rent and profit.

Workers naturally resent income tax and indirect taxes that add to their cost of living, and any increase in these will obviously impact on their living standard at the time the increase is introduced. In the longer term however, the level of taxation does not affect the level of wages; rather, the level of taxes determines the division of the surplus between capitalist, landlord, banker and state – all of whom are supported by the working class.

The capitalists therefore, in a sense, have greater reason to resent taxation, but it is invariably their own government which levies taxes (certainly not the working class!). The reason for taxation is that at any given stage in its development, capital is not able to carry out the whole range of tasks required in the social division of labour for production. Therefore, they club together to pay for police, military, road-works and so on. However necessary these things may be for the maintenance of capitalism, they are functions which do not expand capital, and therefore, from the standpoint of capital, they are unproductive.

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“Now, for the capitalist to undertake road building as a business, at his expense, various conditions are required, which all amount to this, that the mode of production based on capital is already developed to its highest stage. ... The separation of public works from the state, and their migration into the domain of the works undertaken by capital itself, indicates the degree to which the real community has constituted itself in the form of capital. A country, e.g. the United States, may feel the need for railways in connection with production; nevertheless the direct advantage arising from them for production may be too small for the investment to appear as anything but sunk capital. Then capital shifts the burden on to the shoulders of the state; or, where the state traditionally still takes up a position superior to capital, it still possesses the authority and the will to force the society of capitalists to put a part of their revenue, not of their capital, into such generally useful works, which appear at the same time as general conditions of production, and hence not as particular conditions for one capitalist or another – and, so long as capital does not adopt the form of the joint-stock company, it always looks out only for its particular conditions of realisation, and shifts the communal conditions off on to the whole country as national requirements.” [Grundrisse]

Further, it is obviously not a matter of indifference for the workers whether health services, housing, prisons, education and so on, are conducted as profit-making concerns or are run as social services. Since the days of Bismarck in Germany, Baldwin’s Britain and the New Deal in the U.S., the state has provided services which capitalism, by its own means, has been incapable of providing for the working class. Initially, this was simply a response to the threat of social revolution on the part of the workers. Later on, capitalist production required more and more skilled labour, and more settled conditions for production. The capitalists are incapable of restraining their own rapacity and over-exploitation, whether of human flesh or of the environment, and this can only be achieved by delegating responsibility to the government. The Ten Hours Act, which limited the working day in England in 1847, was the first real example of a bourgeois government introducing measures to limit the brutality of capitalist production – for its own good!

Where services are provided via taxes, rather than via the market, social-democrats have argued that the value of these public services contribute to the workers living standards as well as the costs of production of labour power, and consequently refer to the value of state services as the social wage.

Taxonomy and Typology

Taxonomy and Typology are two opposed methods of classification. Typology classifies according to the sensuously given attributes of the thing; Taxonomy classifies objects according to the genesis of the thing.

At a given stage in the development of a science, when as yet the genesis of the object is not known, typology is the only possible method of classification. Classification into types and classes aids sensuous perception. Once a notion of the genesis of the object is gained, the types must be re-ordered and objects which appear to belong to the same type, fall into different species and genre of the new taxonomy and vice versa, objects of different type are found to be of the same species.

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Typology and taxonomy are necessary stages in making sense of the world, which aims to revealing the inner connections between things.

Taylorism

– after Frederick Winslow Taylor (1856-1915) the American inventor and engineer who was the first to make a scientific study of industrial management. Taylor’s system of management corresponds to the early development of mass production and assembly line manufacture and is characterised by extreme elaboration of the division of labour, the reduction of work to machine-like repetitive operations, and extreme labour discipline and supervision of work, aimed at minimising production time per unit of commodity.

Taylor abandoned plans to study at Harvard due to poor eyesight as a result of excessive study. As soon as his eyesight was better, he began work at Midvale Steel as a machine shop labourer, but moved rapidly up the ranks to chief engineer. In 1881, at the tender age of 25, he introduced time-and-motion study at the Midvale plant. The aim was to eliminate every “wasted” action and achieve the maximum possible efficiency; efficiency was conceived in the narrowest way as minimisation of the labour time necessary for the production of a given product. Taylor retired at age 45 but continued to lecture at universities and professional societies.

Prior to Taylor, productivity was assumed to be achieved by reducing the number of “non-productive” workers such as clerks and supervisors; a proportion of 10% was regarded as the upper limit for such non-productive workers. Taylor, however, advocated achieving efficiency by close observation and control of the labour process. By breaking the production process down into its constituent parts and measuring the time required for each minute operation, observing and measuring every movement of the hand, the productivity of individual workers could be greatly increased. This meant, however, employing large numbers of supervisors and clerks, with up to one in four being employed in such supervisory tasks. Not surprisingly, the introduction of Taylorism into factories generates sharp opposition from the productive workers. Taylorism reduces the worker to an automaton and denies the worker any chance for relief or modulation of the pace of work and is enormously stressful and oppressive. The intense supervision means that any resistance or go-slow by the worker is responded to instantly. However, Taylorism’s regime iron discipline brings with it the possibility of buying-off workers by promoting individuals into the swollen ranks of supervisors and other white-collar workers. Since productive work is reduced to automatic activities totally lacking in skill, labour discipline is made easier by limiting recruitment for these roles to the poorest and most unorganised layers of workers.

Nowadays, “Taylorism” is a synonym for the most backward style of management, since it depends on the elimination of all initiative on the part of the productive worker, depending for its success entirely on the effectiveness of labour discipline.

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It is easy to see the kind of class composition and class relations that are generated in the society in which Taylorism prevails in the major industries: the productive workers are utterly alienated from society and poor and uneducated to boot; there is a substantial layer of those people who wear white coats and carry clip boards – the inspectors, overseers, foremen, floor managers, clerks and bureaucrats of all kinds, who defend the system and are hated by the mass of unskilled blue-collar workers. The unions, when they are formed, are as obstinate and penny-pinching as the employers. The mass, blue-collar, unionised, class-conscious, hard-nosed and disciplined, unskilled male workers which form the classic image of the proletariat of the early part of the twentieth century is a product of Taylorist capitalism.

In 1915, as part of his studies for Imperialism, the Highest Stage of Capitalism, Lenin made a study of work organisation in the United States, including a close study of the work of Frederick Winslow Taylor (see Collected Works Volume 39, Beta Notebook). After the revolution, facing the severe crisis and the backward state of Russian industry, including its workforce, Lenin was insistent on the introduction of Taylorism into Soviet factories: “We must raise the question of piece-work and apply and test it in practice; we must raise the question of applying much of what is scientific and progressive in the Taylor system; we must make wages correspond to the total amount of goods turned out.” (see Immediate tasks of the Soviet Government, March 1918). Opposition to this practice is alluded to in “Left-Wing” Communism, An Infantile Disorder, 1920. In fact Taylorism remained ever after the methodology of the Soviet economy.

Index of the Letter T | Encyclopedia of Marxism

FAQs

What is TA abbreviation for? ›

Ta means 'thank you'.

What is TA in financial terms? ›

What Is Technical Analysis? Technical analysis is a trading discipline employed to evaluate investments and identify trading opportunities by analyzing statistical trends gathered from trading activity, such as price movement and volume.

What is meant by TA and RA? ›

Teaching Assistantships (TA's) and Research Assistantships (RA's) are different types of graduate assistantships offered to students as a means to receive the financial support necessary to commit to their academic programs.

Why do people say TA? ›

'Ta' means 'thank you'.

What is the origin of TA? ›

The interjection “ta,” according to the Oxford English Dictionary, originated as “an infantile form of 'thank-you' ” that was first recorded in the late 18th century. We expect that since the word was used as intimate nursery babble, it was around for many years before it was recorded for posterity in writing.

What does TA stand for in contracts? ›

Tentative agreement (TA)

What is a TA budget? ›

The TA Budget is the amount of the award and must be expended in the eight eligible activity categories before the end of the Budget Period. More importantly, this approach directly facilitates the Housing GF efficiencies, to reduce TA Budget provision over a three year period.

What is TA in markets? ›

Technical analysis is the study of financial market action. The technician looks at price changes that occur on a day-to-day or week-to-week basis or over any other constant time period displayed in graphic form, called charts. Hence the name chart analysis.

What is TA in industry? ›

Technical Assist (computer security bulletin) TA.

What is LSA and TA? ›

Although the main difference between LSAs and TAs is that an LSA will commonly be assigned to work with one specific child, usually with special needs. A TA works more with the teacher and manages the class as a whole, alongside the main teacher.

How do I become a TA? ›

What are the steps to becoming an undergraduate teaching assistant?
  1. Take the class you want to be a TA for (it can be an elective or a required course)
  2. Make an A in the class.
  3. Ask the professor who teaches the class you want to be a TA for if they are accepting new TAs.
  4. Complete the department's application to become a TA.

Which is better RA or TA? ›

RAs get paid from a prof's project, so that amount is stretchable according to the prof's whim. Usually it is more and has better perks than a TA's. TAs are not paid by any professor; they are funded by the institute, it is fixed and non-negotiable. Getting RA is tough, but TA is tougher.

Is TA a proper word? ›

Yes, ta is in the scrabble dictionary

Help us improve our data, are the results above correct?

What word has TA and is 5 letters? ›

5-letter words starting with TA
taalstaata
tainotains
taintTaipa
tairataish
taitsTaiya
25 more rows

Do they say TA in the UK? ›

Yes, ta is a word.

An informal word, but all the same ta is used in many areas in England instead of the more conventional thank you. In turn, thank you (or if you prefer it, ta) to Ellen Hawley, author of Notes from the U.K., for asking why we say ta, and therefore providing the inspiration for this post.

Who came up with TA? ›

Transactional Analysis (TA) is is a psychoanalytic theory and method of therapy, developed by Eric Berne during the 1950s.

Can you use TA as a verb? ›

Verb. (intransitive) To act as a teaching assistant. The university offered me a chance to TA this semester.

What is TA in a project? ›

Technical assistance (TA) is a mode of ADB support that facilitates the preparation, financing, and execution of development projects and programs. It helps developing member countries (DMCs) improve their capacities and make better use of their development resources.

What does TA mean in consulting? ›

The last PD offering we will define is technical assistance. Technical assistance, also known as “TA” and commonly referred to as consulting, is the process of providing targeted support to an organization with a development need or problem. It is an effective method for building the capacity of an organization.

What does TA stand for in HR? ›

Talent acquisition is the strategic process employers use to analyze their long-term talent needs in the context of business goals, identify and develop the best talent sources, then execute the strategy by recruiting, evaluating and onboarding candidates.

What are the parts of a budget called? ›

The federal budget comprises three primary components: revenues, discretionary spending, and direct spending.

What is budget EAP? ›

The overall key to success in winning and subsequently managing Externally Aided Projects (EAPs) is the understanding of the current needs, priorities and procedural requirements of both the State Government, the Government of India and the individual Donor Agency and its Country.

What is the extra money in a budget called? ›

Discretionary income is money left over after a person pays their taxes and essential goods and services like housing and food. Nonessential items like vacations and luxury goods are usually paid for with funds from discretionary income.

What is TA in technical analysis? ›

1.1 – Introduction to Technical Analysis

Technical Analysis (also abbreviated as TA) is a popular technique that allows you to understand the risk and rewards involved while taking a trading decision.

What does TA stand for in forex? ›

Technical analysis is the study of the price movement on a chart of a particular Forex currency pair or other market. We can think of technical analysis or “T.A.” for short, as a sort of framework that traders use to study and make use of the price movement of a market.

What is TA in Bitcoin? ›

Technical analysis uses the concept of price patterns from the past and technical indicators to analyse the charts and predict the future movements in price. This can be applied to any market, including cryptocurrencies such as Bitcoin (BTC).

What does TA stand for in engineering? ›

TA stands for Tolerance Analysis (mechanical engineering)

What is a TA in education? ›

A Teaching Assistant (TA) is a graduate student appointed to assist a Course Supervisor with the instruction and evaluation of students in a course.

What is TA in learning? ›

A teaching assistant (TA) is typically a graduate student who assists a professor with instructional responsibilities. A TA often assists the professor with creating and delivering learning materials in a course. TAs may help develop assignments, quizzes and exams to meet a course's objectives.

What is TA in primary school? ›

What do teaching assistants actually do? TAs have two main roles: supporting children's learning, and supporting the main class teacher. In primary schools, their duties include: Setting up equipment and helping to prepare the classroom for lessons, tidying up afterwards and helping with displays.

What skills are required for TA? ›

You'll need:
  • sensitivity and understanding for building good relationships with children.
  • excellent verbal communication skills for motivating children to learn.
  • active listening skills to understand the childrens' needs.
  • patience and the ability to remain calm in stressful situations.

Can you be a TA without qualifications? ›

Technically, the only qualifications you need to become a teaching assistant are GCSEs in Maths and English. There are many courses on offer for those looking to become teaching assistants, but they should not be seen as a prerequisite to entry.

Can I be a TA with no experience? ›

There are no compulsory qualifications or experience required for becoming a teaching assistant. That may sound like great news, but the truth is that you will likely still need some relevant qualifications or experience to prove that you're right for the job.

What is the highest level of TA? ›

HLTA (Higher Level Teaching Assistant)

A Higher Level Teaching Assistant (HLTA) is a TA (Teaching Assistant) who has undertaken additional training and is able to take on greater responsibility, including covering classes, and planning and teaching their own lessons. Work as a teaching assistant?

What is a higher level TA? ›

Higher level teaching assistants (HLTAs) do all the things that regular teaching assistants do but they have an increased level of responsibility. For example HLTAs teach classes on their own, cover planned absences and allow teachers time to plan and mark.

Why being a TA is good? ›

You develop skills

Since you have to clearly articulate directions and explain how to do the classroom assignments to students, you can improve your communication skills. Organizing student work, keeping the classroom tidy and keeping students on a schedule can teach you organizational and time management skills.

How is TA used? ›

Yes, "ta" means thank you. It is informal and you should only really use it with friends and family. If you wish to be polite and courteous always use "Thank you.". Yes, it's a British English colloquial or slang word for 'thank you'.

What type of word is TA? ›

As detailed above, 'ta' is an interjection.

What is the verb of TA? ›

The TA-form of verbs is the conjugation form of verbs that ends with TA or DA. It is for the past or the perfect aspect of verbs. Let me explain how you can change the MASU-form to the TA-form. The basic pattern is to change MASU to TA.

What word ends with TA? ›

fashionista
  • fashionista.
  • sinfonietta.
  • spanakopita.
  • impedimenta.
  • chondromata.
  • condylomata.
  • carcinomata.
  • leiomyomata.

Is TA a four letter word? ›

Of course “can't” is a four-letter word. Just count the letters, it's obvious.

What is a 4 letter word that starts with TA? ›

4-letter words starting with TA
TAAFtaal
tahrtaig
tailtain
taistait
takatake
25 more rows

Why do people in England say ta? ›

Online Etymology Dictionary says: ta: 1772, "natural infantile sound of gratitude" [Weekley]. Although possibly originating from the imitative of baby talk, this is in widespread use in the North of England and Wales as an informal "thanks" amongst adults. Used to express thanks.

Why do Brits say ta ta? ›

It comes to us from England. The Oxford English Dictionary calls it a nursery saying — an expression for bye. The earliest we see it in English is 1823. Then, The New York Times quoted someone using it as a farewell in 1889.

Why do people from Liverpool say ta? ›

Ta'ra or Tra

Saying ta'ra instead of goodbye is used commonly in Liverpool. Suzanne Harle said: "Ta'ra. My young niece from London didn't believe that's how we said goodbye." Caren Price replied: "I say this when I'm on holiday and my husband says they don't know what ta'ra is."

What does TA stand for in business? ›

written abbreviation for trading as: used to show the name used by a business when advertising, dealing with customers, etc. rather than the name recorded for legal purposes: Andrew Clarke, t/a Clarke's Cakes.

What is TA in investment banking? ›

Transfer Agent (TA) is a term that you would have come across if you trade in shares or securities. It is a financial service provider that keeps the records for a public company as to who owns its stock or bonds.

What does TA stand for in consulting? ›

Technical assistance (TA) is a mode of ADB support that facilitates the preparation, financing, and execution of development projects and programs.

What does TA stands for in HR? ›

Talent acquisition is the strategic process employers use to analyze their long-term talent needs in the context of business goals, identify and develop the best talent sources, then execute the strategy by recruiting, evaluating and onboarding candidates.

What is TA in balance sheet? ›

Total asset is the sum of all current and non-current assets which is equal to the sum of total liabilities and stockholder's equity on the other side of the balance sheet. T.A are disclosed in the balance sheet as per the applicable GAAP, laws of the land.

What is TA and FA in trading? ›

Fundamental analysis evaluates securities by attempting to measure their intrinsic value. Technical analysis differs from fundamental analysis, in that traders look to statistical trends in the stock's price and volume. Both methods are used for researching and forecasting future trends in stock prices.

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