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Post War Eugenics Reproductive Choices and Population Policies in Greece 1950s 1980s
|Author||: Alexandra Barmpouti|
|Total Pages||: 204|
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This book sheds light on the history of Greek eugenics during the post-war period. At this time, eugenics had already been condemned by international declarations. Alexandra Barmpouti, however, challenges the assumption that eugenics disappeared and confirms the continuity of eugenics after the Second World War. She looks at the Greek paradigm because it included the establishment of a eugenics society in 1953 and revealed the contact of Greek eugenicists with renowned British and American birth control advocates. The book covers for the first time the untold history of contraception in Greece during the 1950s and 1960s when the use of female contraceptives was forbidden. It thus argues that birth control was ideologically based on eugenics. In the same context, the book discusses significant breakthroughs related to eugenics, such as the rise of the feminist movement and the advance of human genetics that took place during this period.
Abortion and Contraception in Modern Greece 1830 1967
|Author||: Violetta Hionidou|
|Publsiher||: Springer Nature|
|Total Pages||: 361|
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The book examines the history of abortion and contraception in Modern Greece from the time of its creation in the 1830s to 1967, soon after the Pill became available. It situates the history of abortion and contraception within the historiography of the fertility decline and the question of whether the decline was due to adjustment to changing social conditions or innovation of contraceptive methods. The study reveals that all methods had been in use for other purposes before they were employed as contraceptives. For example, Greek women were employing emmenagogues well before fertility was controlled; they did so in order to ‘put themselves right’ and to enhance their fertility. When they needed to control their fertility, they employed abortifacients, some of which were also emmenagogues, while others had been used as expellants in earlier times. Curettage was also employed since the late nineteenth century as a cure for sterility; once couples desired to control their fertility curettage was employed to procure abortion. Thus couples did not need to innovate but rather had to repurpose old methods and materials to new birth control methods. Furthermore, the role of physicians was found to have been central in advising and encouraging the use of birth control for ‘health’ reasons, thus facilitating and speeding fertility decline in Greece. All this occurred against the backdrop of a state and a church that were at times neutral and at other times disapproving of fertility control.
The World Health Organization
|Author||: Marcos Cueto,Theodore M. Brown,Elizabeth Fee|
|Publsiher||: Cambridge University Press|
|Total Pages||: 391|
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A history of the World Health Organization, covering major achievements in its seventy years while also highlighting the organization's internal tensions. This account by three leading historians of medicine examines how well the organization has pursued its aim of everyone, everywhere attaining the highest possible level of health.
Psychiatry and the Legacies of Eugenics
|Author||: Frank W. Stahnisch,Erna Kurbegović|
|Publsiher||: Athabasca University Press|
|Total Pages||: 413|
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From 1928 to 1972, the Alberta Sexual Sterilization Act, Canada’s lengthiest eugenic policy, shaped social discourses and medical practice in the province. Sterilization programs—particularly involuntary sterilization programs—were responding both nationally and internationally to social anxieties produced by the perceived connection between mental degeneration and heredity. Psychiatry and the Legacies of Eugenics illustrates how the emerging field of psychiatry and its concerns about inheritable conditions was heavily influenced by eugenic thought and contributed to the longevity of sterilization practices in Western Canada. Using institutional case studies, biographical accounts, and media developments from Western Canada and Europe, contributors trace the impact of eugenics on nursing practices, politics, and social attitudes, while investigating the ways in which eugenics discourses persisted unexpectedly and remained mostly unexamined in psychiatric practice. This volume further extends historical analysis into considerations of contemporary policy and human rights issues through a discussion of disability studies as well as compensation claims for victims of sterilization. In impressive detail, contributors shed new light on the medical and political influences of eugenics on psychiatry at a key moment in the field’s development. With contributions by Ashley Barlow, W. Mikkel Dack, Diana Mansell, Guel A. Russell, Celeste Tuong Vy Sharpe, Henderikus J. Stam, Douglas Wahlsten, Paul J. Weindling, Robert A. Wilson, Gregor Wolbring, and Marc Workman.
Preventing Mental Illness
|Author||: Despo Kritsotaki,Vicky Long,Matthew Smith|
|Total Pages||: 292|
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This book provides an overview of a diverse array of preventive strategies relating to mental illness, and identifies their achievements and shortcomings. The chapters in this collection illustrate how researchers, clinicians and policy makers drew inspiration from divergent fields of knowledge and practice: from eugenics, genetics and medication to mental hygiene, child guidance, social welfare, public health and education; from risk management to radical and social psychiatry, architectural design and environmental psychology. It highlights the shifting patterns of biological, social and psychodynamic models, while adopting a gender perspective and considering professional developments as well as changing social and legal contexts, including deinstitutionalisation and social movements. Through vigorous research, the contributors demonstrate that preventive approaches to mental health have a long history, and point to the conclusion that it might well be possible to learn from such historical attempts. The book also explores which of these approaches are worth considering in future and which are best confined to the past. Within this context, the book aims at stoking and informing debate and conversation about how to prevent mental illness and improve mental health in the years to come. Chapters 3, 10, and 12 of this book are available open access under a CC BY 4.0 license at link.springer.com
The Oxford Handbook of the History of Eugenics
|Author||: Alison Bashford,Philippa Levine|
|Publsiher||: OUP USA|
|Total Pages||: 607|
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Philippa Levine is the Mary Helen Thompson Centennial Professor in the Humanities at the University of Texas at Austin. Her books include Prostitution, Race and Politics: Policing Venereal Disease in the British Empire, and The British Empire, Sunrise to Sunset. --
Textbook of Global Health
|Author||: Anne-Emanuelle Birn,Yogan Pillay,Timothy H. Holtz|
|Publsiher||: Oxford University Press|
|Total Pages||: 560|
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THE CRITICAL WORK IN GLOBAL HEALTH, NOW COMPLETELY REVISED AND UPDATED "This book compels us to better understand the contexts in which health problems emerge and the forces that underlie and propel them." -Archbishop Emeritus Desmond Mpilo Tutu H1N1. Diabetes. Ebola. Zika. Each of these health problems is rooted in a confluence of social, political, economic, and biomedical factors that together inform our understanding of global health. The imperative for those who study global health is to understand these factors individually and, especially, synergistically. Fully revised and updated, this fourth edition of Oxford's Textbook of Global Health offers a critical examination of the array of societal factors that shape health within and across countries, including how health inequities create consequences that must be addressed by public health, international aid, and social and economic policymaking. The text equips students, activists, and health professionals with the building blocks for a contextualized understanding of global health, including essential threads that are combined in no other work: · historical dynamics of the field · the political economy of health and development · analysis of the current global health structure, including its actors, agencies, and activities · societal determinants of health, from global trade and investment treaties to social policies to living and working conditions · the role of health data and measuring health inequities · major causes of global illness and death, including under crises, from a political economy of health vantage point that goes beyond communicable vs. non-communicable diseases to incorporate contexts of social and economic deprivation, work, and globalization · the role of trade/investment and financial liberalization, precarious work, and environmental degradation and contamination · principles of health systems and the politics of health financing · community, national, and transnational social justice approaches to building healthy societies and practicing global health ethically and equitably Through this approach the Textbook of Global Health encourages the reader -- be it student, professional, or advocate -- to embrace a wider view of the global health paradigm, one that draws from political economy considerations at community, national, and transnational levels. It is essential and current reading for anyone working in or around global health.
The Demographic Dividend
|Author||: David Bloom,David Canning,Jaypee Sevilla|
|Publsiher||: Rand Corporation|
|Total Pages||: 126|
|Genre||: Social Science|
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There is long-standing debate on how population growth affects national economies. A new report from Population Matters examines the history of this debate and synthesizes current research on the topic. The authors, led by Harvard economist David Bloom, conclude that population age structure, more than size or growth per se, affects economic development, and that reducing high fertility can create opportunities for economic growth if the right kinds of educational, health, and labor-market policies are in place. The report also examines specific regions of the world and how their differing policy environments have affected the relationship between population change and economic development.